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Explanations and guidance regarding CORONAVIRUS

24.02.2020Comments are closed.

What is a Coronavirus?

The new coronavirus was named 2019 nCoV. It is assumed to come from an animal reservoir and has adapted to humans. Human-to-human transmission was also confirmed.

What are the symptoms and what is the course of the disease?

The disease is manifested by fever, cough and shortness of breath, which is common for pneumonia. As this is a new virus, there is no precise information on the course of the disease. It is concluded that it occurs in a lighter form in about 80% of those infected. About 20% of patients are likely to have a severe course. Infection with the new coronavirus cannot be distinguished from other pneumonia agents solely on the basis of the course of the disease and the patient’s problems.

Microbiological testing is required to confirm or exclude new coronavirus infection.

The coronavirus is found in the swab of the nasopharynx, in the throat swab, in the respiratory tract, and in other infections.

What is the mortality rate for coronavirus infection?

The exact mortality rate after infection with the new coronavirus is not yet available, according to China, it is estimated at 2% – 4%.

How are new coronavirus infections treated?

There is no antiviral drug for the new coronavirus. Drugs that exert e.g. influenza virus or herpes virus, do not affect coronaviruses. The treatment is therefore symptomatic – the medication tries to alleviate the patient’s problems and replace the function of the organ, which is not sufficient in case of infection eg. in severely affected lungs, patients are mechanically breathed (artificial ventilation), oxygen added, fluid replacements, etc. The vaccine does not (yet) exist.

Is the new coronavirus being transmitted to humans?

The new coronavirus is transmitted to humans by drip. This means that closer contact with the patient is required for transmission, the distance to the patient is 1.5 m. It is possible for new coronavirus to become infected by contact with contaminated surfaces, but it has not yet been reliably proven.

Although it has not been demonstrated that the new coronavirus is airborne (aero genic), caution and protection in particularly risky interventions at a healthcare facility (eg, bronchoscopy where infectious aerosol is generated) is advised. Staying in the same room with the patient (if we are 1.5 m away) poses no risk.

Based on investigations, Chinese experts have determined that the virus could spread to humans through the digestive tract. This discovery came from the study of stool samples and rectal swabs in patients.

Many coronavirus-infected people have symptoms that are characteristic of diarrhoea, but not other symptoms, such as high fever, that are common in virus infection.

With diarrhoea symptoms, faecal-oral transmission of the virus is possible, especially with poor handwashing or inadequate sanitation.

What is the incubation period after infection with a new coronavirus?

The exact incubation period is not yet known, but according to other coronaviruses and preliminary data, it is estimated to be between 2 and 12 days, probably not more than 14 days. On average, the incubation is expected to be 7 days long.

Is there a risk that a new coronavirus will appear in Slovenia?

The possibility of a new coronavirus appearing in Slovenia exists. The European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) estimates the risk of occurrence as medium high for Europe. Slovenia is ready for the case of the new coronavirus and has plans in place to respond to various risks, including the emergence of infectious diseases, which is available at the following link.

What do they advise travellers to China?

Chinese health authorities advise not to travel to the city of Vuhan and some other cities until the situation has subsided. Some other countries do not recommend urgent travel to other parts of China. Passengers should carefully consider all possible complications and obstacles, including health care issues, before making a decision.

Slovenian travellers to China are advised to:

• avoid animals (living or dead), animal markets and products of animal origin (eg insufficient heat treated meat),

avoid contact with sick people,

often wash their hands with soap and water or disinfect them,

Get vaccinated against flu, which is very common during this time, before traveling.

When traveling, we advise you to follow local instructions.

What advice do you have for travellers after returning from China?

If you have travelled through China (mainly to Wuhan, Hubei province) and have experienced cough, fever and shortness of breath (shortness of breath) after returning to Slovenia or on your return:

stay at home, avoid contact with other people,

• call your doctor of choice or on-call doctor and tell him you have recently travelled to Wuhan or been in China and became ill,

before coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief or cough and sneeze into the top of your sleeve and not into your palm. Wash your hands carefully (with soap and water) and disinfect if necessary.

TREATMENT OF PERSONS SUSPECTED OF HAVING A NEW CORONAVIRUS

It is more likely to be a new CORONAVIRUS when the patient has a fever of 38 ° C or higher and a respiratory infection or pneumonia AND stayed in China for 14 days before the onset of the disease OR had close contact with a confirmed CORONAVIRUS infection case.

The patient should wear a surgical mask, stay at home, and call a health centre or his personal doctor, in case of deterioration of the state of health, the patient must call emergency medical help using emergency telephone number 113.

 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PATIENT WITH NEW CORONAVIRUS IN HOME CARE

Treatment of new coronavirus infection is symptomatic. You can lower your fever with antipyretics (medicines that reduce fever). Consume enough fluid and rest. Follow the instructions of your chosen GP.

To prevent the spread of new coronavirus, please follow the instructions below.

- Stay home until you recover. Avoid contact with other people.

- Spend most of your time in a different room than other family members, whenever possible. Limit contact with family members (maintain a distance of at least 1.5 meters between you and the rest of the family).

- Regularly ventilate the rooms in which you are staying. Ventilate the room five to ten minutes several times a day.

- Follow proper cough hygiene (before coughing / sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a paper handkerchief or cough / sneeze into the upper part of your sleeve). Dispose of the paper towel after each use. WASH HANDS after each sneeze or cough!

- Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water and, if necessary, disinfect them. For proper hand hygiene, see the appendix.

- Use your cutlery / hygiene items, linen and towels.

- Clean surfaces that are visibly contaminated with respiratory secretions; also clean other surfaces regularly. Use the cleaners you have at home.

- Wash your laundry with a normal washing powder at least 60⁰C.

In the event of a worsening condition (exacerbation of cough with purulent sputum, difficulty breathing, apathy and confusion, etc.), consult your healthcare provider over the telephone for further steps.

GENERAL PREVENTIVE AND SPECIFIC MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 

THE CORONAVIRUS CASE

The general preventive measures are:

  • Consistent washing of hands with water and soap;
    • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and clean water always before eating and after use toilets.
    • Wash your hands as often as possible. Where no clean water is available, we advise use of wet hygiene or alcohol wipes or disinfectant.
  • Cough hygiene: cough and sneeze into the bend of the elbow. When snoring, use a disposable wipe, which is thrown into a closed basket after use and then washed.
  • As little contact as possible with sick persons;
  • Employees should use disposable protective gloves and protective clothing when cleaning potentially contaminated surfaces, which they must then replace;
  • Toilets are more often cleaned and disinfected.
  • All surfaces contacted by patients are consistently cleaned and disinfected.
    • We recommend consistent disinfection of hooks, fences, means of transport, etc …;
  • Disinfected surfaces of the patient’s secretions (eruptions, faeces) should be disinfected first, and then clean and disinfect.
  • Ventilate rooms or vehicles for 4 hours;
  • All patient excretions are infectious, which must be taken into account when cleaning and disposing of waste.
  • All employees, students and visitors with signs of illness should be excluded from the work and study process and avoid attending crowded places.

In case of any disease signs stay home and do not come to the premises of the School of Economics and Business or any public place!!


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